Anatomy of the genitourinary system
Anatomy of the genitourinary system – Elite Treatment in Europe
SURGICAL DIVISION CB 6 RZD – MOSCOW
Urology is the branch of medicine that studies the causes, course, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases of urinary organs and urinary organs of male zhenschin.Osnovnaya function of urinary system – the formation and excretion of urine.
The main body of the urinary system – kidneys. Kidney disease in humans two. They are located in the lumbar region to the right and left of the spine. The kidneys are bean-shape, their size a little more than an adult fist. By suitable kidney renal arteries, which branch into smaller kidney arterioles. Bringing arterioles branch into smaller vessels – capillaries, which are interwoven to form a ball. Then, the capillaries are connected to the efferent arteriole. The size of bringing arterioles than outflow, due to this pressure in the capillaries of the blood is high and due to this difference in the liquid part of blood filtered by the renal tubules. Renal tubules form curves, in which there is reabsorption of water and salts, and the remaining liquid forms a urine output. Vascular glomerulus and renal tubules, together constitute the basic functioning unit of the kidney – nephron.
In normal urine contains water, the products of nitrogen metabolism of the body (urea, uric acid, creatinine, ammonia), inorganic and organic substances, foreign to the organism substances, drugs. Thus, the kidneys eliminate excess water from the body, regulate the osmotic state of blood acid-base balance, the removal from the body of toxic substances.
In addition, the kidneys perform other functions: a substance formed in the kidneys to regulate blood pressure, involved in the synthesis of red blood cells – red blood cells involved in the metabolism in the body.
Formed in the kidney the urine is collected in the renal pelvis and cups. Renal pelvis passes through a narrow tube – the ureter. In ureter urine enters the bladder. Departs from the ureter of each kidney separately. Its length is about 30 cm, diameter 4-6 mm. Ureters empty into the bladder.
The bladder is located in the abdomen behind the pubic bone. The bladder stores urine, and muscular wall of the bladder contractions expels urine out through the urethra. The bladder can be stretched and stretched as he holds up to 500 ml of urine. When filling the bladder, the receptors that are located in its wall signal the tension and the person has an urge to urinate. At the bottom of the bladder narrows and passes into the urethra. In place of the bladder into the urethra, cervix, there is a sphincter (pulp). This sphincter, a person can adjust arbitrarily – squeezing it to hold urine in the bladder.
From the bladder urine enters the urethra. The urethra is different in men and women:
- men up to 40cm longer and narrower – to 8 mm
- women's short – about 3-4 cm, and greater – up to 1.5 cm
Ends the urethra orifice through which urine is expelled.
Male reproductive system is closely related to the genitourinary, so she studied and treated in urology. For the male reproductive system are the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis.
The testicles, or testes – a male sex gland. In the testes are male sex cells – sperm and male sex hormone is testosterone. Every minute in the testis is formed up to 50 thousand sperm. The testicles are oval in shape, size, there are about 3h4sm, weight from 30 to '40 The testicles are located in the scrotum, the left testicle is slightly lower than the right. The scrotum performs a protective function, and creates conditions for the functioning of the testes: a lower temperature than body temperature.
On the back edge of the testes is the epididymis. He has a head body and tail. In the epididymis the sperm ripen and gain mobility. From the leaves of the epididymis the vas deferens, which, together with the vessels called the spermatic cord. According to it, the sperm reach the seminal vesicles. From each egg leaves your spermatic cord, which then rises through the inguinal canal and goes to the bladder neck. Then the vas deferens is connected to the seminal vesicles. In the seminal vesicles formed part of the liquid secretion of semen and sperm are collected, to the point where they will be removed from the body. The ducts of the seminal vesicles empty into the urethra. Before flowing into the urethra the ducts of the seminal vesicles pass through the prostate gland.
Prostate – is an unpaired organ that is located below the bladder, covering his neck and forming a part of the sphincter muscle of the bladder. The shape of the prostate gland resembles a chestnut. This is a musculo-glandular organ. The prostate gland has a shell, from which depart interior walls separating the gland into lobules. Slices of the prostate contain glandular tissue that produces the secret of the prostate gland. This is the secret of duct empties into the urethra and forms the liquid part of semen.
Penis – an organ through which the urethra. He used to urinate outside and for sexual intercourse. The rear part of it is attached to the pubic bone, followed by the body of the penis and it ends with the head, which distinguish the head neck – a narrow part, and the crown of the head – the wider part. The skin on the penis is thin, easily movable, which forms on the anterior fold, which is able to cover their head. The skin on the head goes into the mucosa. Inside the penis is made up of three bodies. Underneath is the spongy body, through which the urethra opens a hole in the head, upper right and left cavernous body. When sexual arousal erectile tissues fill with blood, making the penis increases in size, it becomes hard (an erection), which allows to perform the sexual act and deliver sperm to the woman's cervix.
Department of Urology Professor GEPELYA – GERMANY
CHILDREN urology and andrology in MOSCOW
UROLOGY – I want to be treated ABROAD
EARLY DIAGNOSIS Urologic Diseases
Urology, University Hospital Marburg
Rehabilitation Clinic Urological KURPARK
Examination and treatment in GERMANY – Institute "DIAGNOSTIX"
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