Arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis
What is atherosclerosis and how it is linked with hypertension
Atherosclerosis – a scourge of the 20th century. One of the factors of its development is hypertension. When atherosclerosis is marked imbalance of lipids in the blood, which is to increase the level of LDL and lowering HDL. This leads to the formation of the arteries so-called atheromatous plaques, which consist of calcium salts, fibers, fibrin, and cholesterol. This, in turn, leads to a narrowing of the lumen of the vessels, the most serious it applies to vessels of the heart (coronary arteries), as is the cause of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction, and cerebral vessels, which manifests itself in the form of circulatory disorders of the brain and strokes.
The manifestations of atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis usually does not manifest itself outwardly as long as the narrowing of blood vessels did not reach the point where blood flow in organs and tissues is disturbed seriously. For example, it may be chest pain associated with physical activity, and sometimes at rest, pain in the extremities, which are also associated with narrowing of the arteries.
Myocardial infarction – a condition in which the heart muscle – the myocardium – is a sharp infringement of blood circulation due to complete blockage of the lumen of a coronary atheromatous plaque or thrombus (which happens rarely). In the absence of circulation for some time in the myocardial tissue necrosis occurs – necrosis, which is sometimes irreversible. Later this is replaced by scar tissue necrosis.
Diagnosis of atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is usually detected only in those cases where the observed state, due to them, angina, myocardial infarction, stroke, circulatory disorders in the limbs. Diagnosis of atherosclerosis based on the following research methods:
- Electrocardiography (ECG). This method is based on recording the electrical activity of the heart. As we have said, in the heart of a vascular system, through which the electrical impulse from the node where it is produced to the rest of the muscles. These potentials represent the work of the heart. At a certain disease, the ECG recorded these or other symptoms. This is especially true arrhythmias , ischemic events, which are characteristic of ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction.
- Veloergometry. This method is also based on the ECG, but is running under a certain load, when the patient receives the exercise on a stationary bike. Due to the need for such a load in the blood supply of the heart increases, and becomes a prominent presence of disturbances of blood flow to the heart.
- Coronary angiography. This X-ray diagnostic techniques, in which the coronary vessels entered a long, thin catheter, which is usually inserted through the brachial or femoral artery. Upon reaching the coronary catheter, they introduce radiopaque substance. After this is done an X-ray, which helps to identify areas of narrowing of the arteries atheromatous plaques.
- Echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart). This method allows to reveal structural changes of the heart, such as thickening of the walls of the ventricles, indicating that their hypertrophy. This is one of the hallmarks of hypertension.
- Computed tomography (CT). This X-ray technique that provides a cross-sectional slices of the heart tissue.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This method also provides a cross-sectional slices of tissue, especially blood vessels, since it is very sensitive. This is not an X-ray technique that uses electromagnetic waves in a strong magnet field.
Treatment of atherosclerosis
In the treatment of atherosclerosis are, above all, change of diet , exercise, and drugs to reduce blood cholesterol levels. By surgical methods are primarily balloon angioplasty, when the lumen narrowed by plaque vessel entered a long, thin catheter with a balloon inflated at the end, after which the artery expands and stenting, the lumen of the artery when the set of so-called stent acting as a scaffolding for the vessel. In some cases, wires and other interventions such as bypass surgery.
In addition, to reduce high blood pressure and risk of atherosclerosis is assigned medication. It includes diuretics (diuretics), beta-blockers , calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers, or alpha-blockers.
In addition to the drugs used to treat atherosclerosis, specific drugs that lower blood lipid levels. This group of drugs called statins.
German Heart Center – BERLIN
Cardiology Clinic NIDERBERG – Germany
CARDIOLOGY CENTER of MEDICINE – MOSCOW
EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
Examination and treatment in GERMANY – Institute "DIAGNOSTIX"
AID IN THE TREATMENT –
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