Archive for the ‘Traumatology’ Category

First Aid For Fractures

First Aid For Fractures

First aid for fractures

TRAUMATOLOGY -2006

First aid for fractures should include stopping bleeding, pain, dressing wounds and in the presence of transport immobilization.

Immobilization – the creation of conditions for the immobility of the affected part of the body. Immobilization not have to be used in fractures of bones, joints, damaged nerves, major blood vessels, extensive damage to muscle, burns a large area of the body. In these situations, the motion, which makes the patient is randomly or spontaneously during transportation can cause harm to his health.

Immobilization of Transport – is the creation of immobile limb for the time necessary for the delivery of patient travmopunkte or hospital. It allows you to avoid further damage to surrounding the fracture site blood vessels, nerves, soft tissue and sharp bone fragments, thus, reduces the risk of traumatic shock, significant blood loss and infection. Transport immobilization applied for several hours, sometimes for several days if the hospital is far away from the scene.

Immobilization of the fractured limb is carried out by time & attendance tires:

  • ladder
  • wire
  • plywood
  • mesh.

Requirements for transport of immobilization following:

  • The tire must be applied not only to the injury site, and grabbing the next two joints, sometimes there is a need for immobilization of three adjacent joints. This is done to prevent movement in the joints, which are transferred to the injured limb. In addition, at the turn of the finiteness of the nearby joint, dislocation of the head can occur a broken bone.
  • Broken limbs should be given the correct position. This measure reduces the possibility of injury surrounding tissue, blood vessels and nerves. In open fractures the wound bandaged. Before applying immobilization tires, if possible, to have anesthesia.
  • Rigid bus must be imposed on clothing, or in areas of friction with bony protuberances is enclosed cotton, soft cloth.
  • Immobilization should be sufficient to create a stillness broken bones, as incorrect or incomplete immobilization can lead to inflict more harm than good.

Center of Traumatology and ORTHOPAEDICS – Hospital FCS – MOSCOW

Treatment and rehabilitation center for Health Care – Moscow
APPLICATION for medical treatment abroad

REHABILITATION IN ISRAEL – Levinstein rehabilitation center

Examination and treatment in GERMANY – Institute "DIAGNOSTIX"

AID IN THE TREATMENT –
Immobilization of an injury neck
Immobilization of the spine in trauma
Immobilization of a suspected fracture of the scapula, or clavicle
Immobilization of an injury of the chest
Immobilization of fractures of the upper extremities
Immobilisation of forearm fractures
Immobilization of fractures of the wrist joint
Immobilisation of fracture of pelvic bones
Immobilisation of fracture of the femur
Immobilization of a suspected lower leg fracture

Fracture of The Ribs

Fracture of The Ribs

Fracture of the ribs

TRAUMATOLOGY -2006

Rib fractures in humans occur fairly often. They make up 5% of all fractures. Due to the decrease in the elasticity of the edges with age, often broken ribs in the elderly.

Rib fractures occur:

  • in the fall
  • with direct impact on the chest
  • with compression of the thorax.

Fracture of one rib is isolated, fractured several ribs – plural. There are:

  • crack
  • subperiosteal fracture when the broken bone and the periosteum remains intact
  • a complete fracture of the ribs.

By themselves, rib fractures are not dangerous and will heal quickly enough, the danger is a concomitant damage to internal organs.

Rib fractures are complicated injuries of lung membranes – pleura, the lungs themselves. If the damage the lungs and pleura there is a risk of hemothorax (accumulation of blood in the thoracic cavity between the inner and outer membrane of the lungs), pneumothorax (accumulation of air in the chest cavity). Sometimes the air from the lungs enters the subcutaneous tissue, which is called subcutaneous emphysema.

Rib fractures are accompanied by limited mobility of the chest, a decrease in respiratory lung volumes, especially in the elderly.

The most common fractures occur at the site of maximum bending of the edges – on the side surface of the chest. If one broken rib, the displacement of bone fragments are usually not the case. With multiple fractures of ribs fragments can move in different directions, hurt nearby tissues and organs and cause dangerous complications.

The patient is worried about the chest pain that increases with deep breathing, coughing, talking. Pain can be reduced with the patient sitting and increases with movement.

With multiple fractures, lung patient usually sits motionless, breathing shallow. When palpation of the chest revealed sharply painful fracture site. If the damage lung tissue and leaving the air in the subcutaneous tissue during palpation there is a specific fat creaking under the fingers – a crackling sound.

In multiple rib fractures may disrupt the patient's breathing, heart rate. The skin is pale with a bluish tint. If the fragments of ribs damage lung tissue – there is hemoptysis. Multiple rib fractures may be complicated by the development of pneumonia.

Diagnosis of rib fractures is carried out on the basis of radiologic studies. Produce images of the edges.

Treatment of fractures of the ribs.

When isolated and uncomplicated fractures of ribs hold the fracture analgesia. For this purpose, local procaine or alcohol-procaine block in the fracture of each edge. The patient is recommended to sit up in bed, breathing exercises assigned, expectorant drugs, physiotherapy, aimed at the prevention of stagnation in the lungs and improved ventilation.

Isolated and uncomplicated rib fractures often require hospitalization and patients can be treated as outpatients. In uncomplicated fractures for seam edges usually takes about one month.

Multiple and complicated fractures require fixation of the ribs, stretching to restore the integrity of the chest and the normalization of breathing, for which the patient must be hospitalized. Compression of the lungs with air or blood during pneumothorax and hemothorax should be eliminated. To do this, perform the puncture of the thoracic cavity, air or blood is removed. Sometimes the puncture has to do again. In severe cases, resorting to a ventilator.

Center of Traumatology and ORTHOPAEDICS – Hospital FCS – MOSCOW

Treatment and rehabilitation center for Health Care – Moscow
APPLICATION for medical treatment abroad

REHABILITATION IN ISRAEL – Levinstein rehabilitation center

Examination and treatment in GERMANY – Institute "DIAGNOSTIX"

AID IN THE TREATMENT –

Fracture of Sternum

Fracture of Sternum

Fracture of sternum

TRAUMATOLOGY -2006

The belly is in front of the chest. It is an elongated flat bone. It is tightly connected to the clavicle in verhnebokovyh parts, and sides with rib cartilage. The belly is covered with a dense front of the periosteum and strengthened cross pectoral muscle, so the sternum fractures are rare.

The mechanism of damage to the sternum – this is usually a direct blow to the sternum, which often occurs when a car accident. As a result, the displacement of the fracture of body of sternum upward and inward. The shape becomes concave sternum look.

Usually at the same time with a fractured sternum, and there is damage to the edges in place of their attachment to the sternum in the area of the fracture. Patients complain of pain in the chest aggravated by breathing. In the area of the fracture occurs swelling, bleeding. When probing reveals the pain and sometimes fragments of the sternum palpated.

Diagnosis of fracture of the sternum is carried out using X-ray images, which show a fracture line, and judge the direction of displacement of bone fragments. With a large displacement of the fragments, they can damage the pleura, lungs and other located in the thoracic cavity organs. When you break the lungs, the air from them may fall into the mediastinum, which leads to a life-threatening complications.

Treatment of fractures of the sternum.

If the fragments are not displaced sternum, conducted anesthesia. To do this, the fracture is injected local anesthetic (procaine), appointed by the pain medication by mouth or intramuscularly. In the area of the sternum is superimposed broad band of adhesive tape, to hold the fragments in place. The strip is removed in two weeks.

If the displacement of bone fragments found sternum, hold them reposition as follows. The patient should be on the hard bed, which fits under the mattress of a wooden shield, with a special roller between the shoulder blades, to prevent movement of the sternum. Thus the body the patient is in a state pererazognutom, chest muscles pull the sternum and the fragments gradually take their place.

For very large bias is sometimes necessary to compare the fragments and to strengthen their propeller. For a complete fusion of the sternum usually takes about one and a half months.

Center of Traumatology and ORTHOPAEDICS – Hospital FCS – MOSCOW

Treatment and rehabilitation center for Health Care – Moscow
APPLICATION for medical treatment abroad

REHABILITATION IN ISRAEL – Levinstein rehabilitation center

Examination and treatment in GERMANY – Institute "DIAGNOSTIX"

AID IN THE TREATMENT –