Hypopituitarism (Simmonds syndrome, a syndrome Shiena)
Hypopituitarism – Elite Treatment in Europe
The syndrome of hypopituitarism is a disease characterized by low precipitation and function of the anterior pituitary or adenohypophysis. The pituitary gland or the pituitary gland consists of two parts front and back. In the anterior pituitary hormones are products of six (adrenocorticotropin, prolactin, growth hormone, follitropin, lutropin, and thyrotropin). When hypopituitarism products all pituitary hormones is sharply reduced or disappears. As a result of sharply declining function of the peripheral endocrine glands, which control the operation of pituitary hormones.
Hypopituitarism may be primary, when damaged or missing cells of the pituitary gormonprodutsiruyuschie and secondary, if a failure of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus cause disease of the central nervous system. Sometimes there is a lack of production of one of the pituitary hormones.
The reasons gipopituitarnogo syndrome may include:
- pituitary adenoma
- pituitary tumor and the hypothalamus or other central nervous system
- disease Shyullera
- blood diseases
- inflammatory diseases of the brain
- vascular disorders in the arteries supplying the pituitary and hypothalamus
- autoimmune diseases
- brain injury
- metabolic disorders in:
- prolonged fasting
- anorexia nervosa
- chronic renal and liver failure.
By the failure of the pituitary gland can cause pituitary abnormalities. In the postpartum period in pathological childbirth may occur necrosis of the anterior pituitary. At full necrosis of the anterior lobe syndrome, a condition called Simmonds, a partial – Shiena syndrome. When gipopituitarnom syndrome is destroyed gormonprodutsiruyuschih cells of the anterior pituitary.
Clinical manifestations of hypopituitarism occurs when funktsioniruschih cells remains less than 10%. The infection usually develops gradually over many years.
The earliest sign of disease is usually failure of the pituitary gonadotrophic function – reducing the number of pituitary hormones regulate the function of sexual glands.
If hypopituitarism began in childhood or a hereditary nature, disturbed development during puberty. Puberty is delayed, formed eunuchoid body proportions, delayed bone growth of the skeleton.
In adults, decreased libido and potency, the secondary sex characteristics gradually being
- decreased body hair in the armpits and pubic
- slowing the growth of beards and mustaches
- decrease in the size of the testicles and prostate gland
- muscle tissue atrophies and is replaced by fat.
In women, decreased libido, disturbed menstrual cycle, reduced breasts, thinner fabric genitals.
One of the earliest signs of hypopituitarism – a violation of smell.
Insufficient production of growth hormone in children manifests growth retardation. In adults, growth hormone deficiency can be manifested muscle weakness, symptoms of the heart, poor exercise tolerance.
Reduced production tirotropnogo hormone causes of childhood to the failure of thyroid function and delayed mental and physical development. In adults, there gipotiroz . Patients are usually normal diet, weight loss rarely happens. There are complaints of weakness. They have low blood pressure, heart rate of a rare, often have gastro-intestinal disorders.
If there are complaints of pituitary tumors in the central nervous system: headache, visual disturbances. Found narrowing of visual fields and changes in the fundus.
A very rare syndrome of acute hypopituitarism, when there is hemorrhage in the pituitary and there:
- sudden headache
- sudden drop of
- drop in blood pressure
- loss of consciousness.
Treatment of hypopituitarism.
Treatment of the syndrome of hypopituitarism is conducted in view of the disease, which led to the failure of the pituitary gland.
When tumors are usually treated surgical or radiation.
To correct the insufficiency of pituitary hormones are appointed by various medications drugs given the prevalence of deficiency of certain hormones:
- When administered adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency, synthetic adrenal cortex hormones – glucocorticoids:
- In men with a decrease in testicular function assigned to male sex hormones:
- In male adolescents at puberty is appointed by chorionic gonadotropin.
- Women were assigned to the cyclic hormone replacement therapy preparations of estrogen and progesterone.
- In case of insufficiency of thyroid function performed thyroid hormone treatment.
- Sometimes there is a need for prescribing growth hormone.
With timely detection of disease and treatment assignment, patients may live a normal life and maintain capacity to work for a long time.
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