Structure and function of female reproductive glands
Structure and function of female reproductive glands – Elite Treatment in Europe
Ovaries – a female sex glands. They are two, one on each side. In the ovaries of the process of oocyte maturation and produced by female sex hormones that regulate sexual function of women. Ends with the maturation of ovaries in adolescence (adolescent) period, when ovarian follicles acquire the ability to mature and the egg, emerging from a mature follicle capable of fertilization. The process of development and maturation of the follicle regulate two pituitary hormone:
- Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
- luteinizing hormone (LH).
In ovarian tissue containing primary follicles. Under the influence of pituitary hormones is activated by a group of primary follicles and in the sixth to the eighth day, one of them becomes dominant, its growth is accelerating.
The remaining follicles degenerate. In the cavity of the dominant follicle accumulates fluid, the shell of the ovarian follicle becomes thinner and maturing under the influence of this phase of the maximum amount of luteinizing hormone, follicle wall ruptures. Ovulation occurs. Egg is released into the abdominal cavity and then enters the fallopian tube. In the empty follicle starts to form the corpus luteum, which atrophied after about two weeks if the pregnancy has not occurred. If the pregnancy occurs the corpus luteum continues to function. It produces progesterone, which maintains the pregnancy in the early stages of its development.
Ovarian hormones are produced from cholesterol by various chemical reactions. Regulates this process is mainly the pituitary hormone called luteinizing or lyutotropinom. Synthesized in the ovaries of estrogen: estrone and estradiol, the most active, progesterone and small amounts of androgens.
Estrogens determine the development of secondary sexual characteristics in women:
- growth of the uterus
- thickening of the vaginal mucosa
- development of the ducts in the breast
- formation of the female figure and features of the skeleton.
Estrogens, falling from the ovaries into the bloodstream, are transported through the body with the help of carrier proteins. Estrogens are destroyed in the liver by hepatic enzymes and excreted in the urine. Progesterone is a hormone and is synthesized by the corpus luteum in the ovaries and placenta during pregnancy. It helps to preserve pregnancy, prepares the inner lining of the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg in it, suppresses estrogen and uterine contractions, promotes the development of glandular breast tissue, under its influence increases basal temperature. Progesterone breaks down in the liver and excreted in the urine. In addition, the ovary produces a certain amount of androgens.
Androgens – a male sex hormones. But most of them are converted into estrogen in the ovary cells and various tissues. In the ovaries produced androstenedione, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The main one androstenedione. Some of it gets into the blood, the rest is converted into estrogen. The ovaries produce hormones and other biologically active substances in the body whose function is still unknown. A normal menstrual cycle involves the follicular (proliferative) and luteal (secretory) phase lasts an average of 28 days from the beginning of one menstrual period to the next. Menopause, menopause, menopause – the period in which the regression of female reproductive organs. At the beginning of menstrual and reproductive functions are extinguished, and then completely stopped.
Menopause is divided into three phases:
- Premenopausal. This period of time preceding the cessation of menstrual bleeding. It lasts from three to seven years. During this period there are changes of the menstrual cycle – the cycle lengthens, becoming scanty menstruation, reduces ovarian hormonal function.
- Menopause – a phase that comes after the last menstrual period. Menopause lasts 12 months. Age of menopause on average 49-51 years.
- Postmenopausal period is the time from menopause to a complete cessation of ovarian function, ie until the end of a woman's life.
Menopause begins when the ovaries are depleted follicles. Termination of development of follicles causes a decrease in production of estradiol and other hormones. On the mechanism of feedback in a lack of estrogen increases the production of stimulating pituitary hormones, follicle stimulating a greater extent, to a lesser LH.
The ovaries decrease in size, they develop sclerotic changes. Cease production of estradiol. In a woman's body begin to dominate the male sex hormones produced by the adrenal cortex. A certain amount of estrogen hormone estrola produce other organs and tissues. To a greater degree of estrone is produced by adipose tissue, and therefore obese women may be more estrone.
Reducing the number of estrogen in the blood causes changes in the organs and tissues, which were under the influence of estrogens (uterus, breast, bladder, brain, heart, blood vessels, etc.). In recent years proved that estrogen sensitive, almost all organs and tissues. In the course of normal menopause reduces the size of the female genital tract and mammary glands.
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