Structure and function of male gonads
Structure and function of male gonads – Elite Treatment in Europe
The testes (testicles) are male sex glands. In the testes form male sex cells – sperm and male hormones (androgens) regulating the function of sex in men.
The testes consist of spermatogenic tubules. Here are formed and transported away sperm.
Male steroid sex hormones are produced in the testes of special cells called Leydig cells. Male sex hormones are synthesized from cholesterol through various chemical reactions by enzymes.
Regulates the function of the hypothalamus of male genitalia, which is located in the brain. In the nuclei of the hypothalamus produces GnRH. In men, the hormone production occurs continuously, unlike its cyclic secretion in women. GnRH stimulates the pituitary gland (located in the brain), in which the first products of lutropin (luteinizing hormone), and then follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Under the action of lutropin in the testes is the synthesis and release of testosterone, follitropin and stimulates the production of sperm. Release of hypothalamic GnRH is regulated by the feedback principle. Reduce the selection of this hormone in the blood: the very high concentration of GnRH, a high concentration of follicle stimulating hormone and lutropin and high concentration of testosterone and estrogen, which are the final link in this chain.
Thus, sex hormones regulate the rate of its own products. Synthesized in the testes of testosterone and some estrogen (female sex hormones).
Testosterone is formed in the testes is transported through the body with the help of carrier proteins. In the tissues of the body of testosterone produced two types of the more active hormone – dihydrotestosterone and a small amount of estrogen.
DHT is the principal male sex hormone that is responsible for many of the secondary male sex characteristics.
The concentration of estrogen in men increases with age and with increasing body weight, as the active estrogens produced in adipose tissue. The main functions of the male sex hormones (androgens) – the formation of male sexual characteristics and maintenance of reproductive function. By the time of birth of the concentration of testosterone in males only slightly higher than in girls.
After birth, levels of testosterone in boys is increasing rapidly, and then for the first year of life decreases, until the teenage years is low. In adolescence the amount of testosterone is increased to 17 years and reaches adult. Since 17 years the level of testosterone in the blood of men is almost constant up to 60 years. With 60 years begins its gradual decline.
Under the action of male sex hormones are:
- formation and growth of the epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, penis,
- male pattern body hair (mustache, beard, hair on the trunk and extremities, and body hair in a diamond shape pubic)
- increases the larynx
- thicken the vocal cords (voice pitch is lowered)
- accelerates muscle growth and the growth of the body.
By the end of puberty, so the level of androgen reaches the adult male, and the production of sperm in a position to ensure fertilization.
The formation of sperm in the testicles are extremely sensitive to any kind of adverse effects. Production of sperm (spermatogenesis) is reduced by the action:
- high temperature
- psychological distress
- when taking certain medications.
Even a slight reduction in the number of testosterone can cause male infertility.
The lack of androgens in the early prenatal period leads to various abnormalities of genitalia:
If androgen deficiency occurs before adolescence, formed "eunuchoidism."
- In this case there is no puberty in a male child.
- The patient has poor muscle development, the body is no or little hair, impaired bone formation.
- As a result of impaired formation of skeleton arm span exceeds height by several sanitimetrov.
If androgen deficiency occurs after adolescence, when the process of puberty is over, the majority of developed secondary sexual characteristics retained. The growth of the beard, for example, virtually unchanged. The other symptoms may slowly regress.
- Develops growing impotence disappear due to spontaneous and adequate stimulus erection.
- The size of the testicles, reduced muscle strength.
- All this is accompanied by disturbances in the psycho-emotional sphere until the development of depression.
The state is accompanied by failure of the function of male gonads (testes) in violation of the education of sex hormones and sperm is called hypogonadism.
- Primary congenital
- Secondary congenital
- initial acquisition
- Secondary acquired.
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