The functions of the adrenal cortex
Diseases of the adrenal cortex – Elite Treatment in Europe
The adrenal glands are endocrine glands located above the upper pole of each kidney. Adrenal glands consist of:
- brain (inner layer)
- cortex or the adrenal cortex.
Size of the adrenal gland of an adult 4h2h0, 3 cm adrenal weight from 6 to 7 g
The upper part of the adrenal cortex is the glomerular zone. It formed mineralocorticoids – aldosterone. Most of the adrenal cortex is two-stream zone. In-stream zone is a synthesis of glucocorticoids.
The inner layer of the adrenal cortex is called the mesh area and synthesizes sex gormony.Vo domestic adrenal medulla are adrenaline and noradrenaline. Hormones produced by the adrenal glands are called corticosteroids. All of them are synthesized from cholesterol. The rate of synthesis of hormones and their release into the blood is controlled by the pituitary hormone adrenocorticotropin.
Glucocorticoids. Primary glucocorticoid in humans is cortisol, which is synthesized in the adrenal gland of the beam area. Less active glucocorticoids:
- 11 – dezoksikortizol
- 11 – degidrokortikosteron.
Transported in blood glucocorticoids by special carrier proteins. Excreted mainly by the liver. Glucocorticoids are involved in the regulation of metabolism in the body. They increase protein breakdown, increase the concentration of glucose in the blood, reduce the formation of fats and alter the distribution of adipose tissue in the body, increasing the amount of free fat in the blood.
Glucocorticoids have anti-inflammatory effect, reducing all of the components of inflammatory reactions in the body. Affect the immune system. They are involved in the regulation of blood pressure, kidney function is activated. If there is an excess of glucocorticoids atrophy of lymph nodes.
Mineralocorticoids. To mineralocorticoids are:
- 18 – oksikortikosteron.
The most active of these aldosterone. It regulates water reabsorption in the tubules of the kidneys, reduces the excretion of sodium and potassium excretion increases from the body. The control of aldosterone synthesis is the renin-angiotensin system, the level of potassium in the blood and adrenocorticotropic hormone.
In the mesh layer formed adrenal sex hormones – androgens, estrogens, and a small amount of progesterone.
Catecholamines. In the adrenal medulla catecholamines are formed:
Catecholamines are neurotransmitters, which serve as transmitters of nerve impulses in the sympathetic nervous system. The synthesis of amino acids derived from tyrosine. Catecholamines are also involved in regulating the secretion of certain hormones in the body, affect the metabolism.
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