Burns of the pharynx and esophagus
Burns of the pharynx and esophagus – Elite Treatment in Europe
ENT Diseases -2005
Burns of the pharynx and esophagus are divided into:
- Thermal (hot food, ferry)
- chemical (acetic acid, ammonia, caustic soda)
Usually more severe burns. The severity of local and general destruction in chemical burns depends on the concentration of the substance, its quantity and duration of exposure to the fabric. The deepest and most extensive lesions occur after a burn alkali.
In thermal and chemical burns are three degrees of pathological changes in tissues:
- erythema (Grade 1)
- blistering (Grade 2)
- necrosis (Grade 3).
Low-concentration solutions and the weak thermal effect usually causes catarrhal inflammation (erythema) of the mucous membrane of the pharynx and esophagus, which usually results in complete recovery without scarring formation.
In cases where the damage is limited to the mucosa, there are superficial adhesions, scar annular folds that do not break the whole wall plasticity.
If it affects the muscular layer of the pharynx and esophagus are formed deep scars across the body wall thickness, resulting in damage to the area sharply limited flexibility and extensibility of the walls of the esophagus and pharynx.
In the first hours and days after the burn concerned a sharp pain in the throat and along the esophagus, aggravated by swallowing and coughing. In the mucosa of the lips, oral cavity, pharynx, formed extensive corpses: white with thermal burns, acetic acid and alkali, dense yellow with nitric acid burns, black and brown with burns of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids. If toxic substances are in the larynx and trachea, there are signs of coughing and choking. In some cases, can be identified by smell.
For first degree burns damaged surface epithelial layer, which is rejected at the 3-4den, exposing congested mucous membrane, the overall condition of the patient is suffering a little.
Second-degree burns cause intoxication, which is most pronounced at 6-7 days in the period of exclusion of necrotic patches, leaving erosion. Since the thickness of the damaged mucosa, wound granulation with the outcome of the scar surface.
When third-degree burn is damaged mucosa and underlying tissues at different depths, there is a severe intoxication. Crust rejection occurs in the second week. Formation of deep ulcers, the healing that takes several weeks and sometimes months. In this form the deep deforming scars.
Burns of the esophagus is not rarely accompanied by complications such as laryngitis, bronchitis, perforation of the esophagus, mediastenit, esophageal tracheal fistula, pneumonia, sepsis, exhaustion.
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