Posts Tagged ‘alberta’

Preventing cancer from forming ‘tentacles’ stops dangerous spread

Roughly 2 in 5 Canadians will develop cancer in their lifetime, and one in four of them will die of the disease. In 2014, it’s estimated that nine Canadians will die of cancer every hour. Thanks to advances in medical research and care, cancer can often be treated with high success if detected early. However, after it spreads, cancer becomes much more difficult to treat.

To spread, or “metastasize,” cancer cells must enter the blood stream or lymph system, travel through its channels, and then exit to another area or organ in the body. This final exit is the least understood part of the metastatic process. Previous research has shown cancer cells are capable of producing “invadopodia,” a type of extension that cells use to probe and change their environment. However, their significance in the escape of cancer cells from the bloodstream has been unclear.

In the study, the scientists injected fluorescent cancer cells into the bloodstream of test models, and then captured the fate of these cells using high-resolution time-lapse imaging. Results confirmed the cancer cells formed invadopodia to reach out of the bloodstream and into the tissue of the surrounding organs — they essentially formed “tentacles” that enabled the tumor cell to enter the organ. However, through genetic modification or drug treatment, the scientists were able to block the factors needed for invadopodia to form. This effectively stopped all attempts for the cancer to spread.

The study findings confirm invadopodia play a key role in the spread of cancer. Most importantly, they suggest an important new target for therapy. If a drug can be developed to prevent invadopodia from forming, it could potentially stop the spread of cancer.

“The spread of cancer works a lot like plane travel,” says lead author Dr. Hon Leong, now a Scientist at Lawson Health Research Institute and Western University. “Just as a person boards an airplane and travels to their destination, tumor cells enter the bloodstream and travel to distant organs like the liver, lungs, or brain. The hard part is getting past border control and airport security, or the vessels, when they arrive. We knew that cancer cells were somehow able to get past these barriers and spread into the organs. Now, for the first time, we know how.”

“Metastasis is the deadliest aspect of cancer, responsible for some 90% of cancer deaths,” says Dr. John Lewis, the Frank and Carla Sojonky Chair in Prostate Cancer Research at the University of Alberta. “These new insights give us both a new approach and a clinical window of opportunity to reduce or block the spread of cancer.”

source : http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140829175428.htm

Researchers discover potential new treatment for colitis

Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry researcher Shairaz Baksh published his team’s discovery in the peer-reviewed journal, PLOS ONE.

His team discovered that a tumour-suppressor gene can also play an important role in the development of colitis. When this gene quits working or is missing, the inflammation process is triggered and the body loses its ability to repair damaged colon tissue. This leads to severe discomfort and poor recovery following bouts of inflammation. Persistent inflammation is prevalent in inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis).

Baksh and his team wondered if they could interfere with the inflammation process and encourage the body to repair the damaged tissue, so the disease would be less severe and patients could recover more quickly from any flare-ups. The team used a leukemia drug (imatinib/gleevec) that has been on the market for years to treat normal mice and mice that were missing the tumour-suppressor gene.

"The treatment reversed the symptoms of colitis," says Baksh. "We are on the cusp of a new treatment for this condition that affects 150,000 Canadians. We are pretty excited about the impact of this finding.

"We are trying to inhibit colitis by preventing the inflammation that is causing the damage. More importantly, by controlling or preventing the inflammation, we can reduce the likelihood that patients with ulcerative colitis develop colorectal cancer later in life. About half of these patients develop this type of cancer due to chronic inflammation.

"Our findings also suggest we may have identified novel biomarkers for the appearance and progression of inflammatory bowel disease."

His team is continuing its work in this area and has discovered that other drugs currently on the market have the same effect in reducing the symptoms of colitis in mice. He hopes to publish the new drug study results very soon, and suspects a new treatment for colitis could be a combination of two to three drugs already on the market.

A combination drug therapy would need to undergo further testing in the lab, but could go to clinical trials in about five years since the medications are already approved.

About 0.5 per cent of Canadians have colitis. The incidence is higher in Alberta than in other provinces and studies are currently underway to identify the hot spots in the province. Genetics, diet and environment each play an important role in the development of the disease. Symptoms include weight loss, rectal bleeding and weight loss. Patients with the condition have ulcerated and inflamed colons, which are shorter than average and cause a great deal of discomfort.

Baksh examines the link between inflammation and cancer. About one-third of cancers start due to chronic inflammation, he says. For example, about 40 to 50 per cent of patients with ulcerative colitis (a form of inflammatory bowel disease) later develop colorectal cancer; those with chronic bronchitis are prone to developing lung cancer; and acute pancreatitis often leads to pancreatic cancer. Hence, there is a great need to understand how inflammation is a "pre-condition" for cancer, says Baksh.

Baksh is a researcher in the Department of Pediatrics, the Department of Biochemistry and the Division of Experimental Oncology.

His research was funded by Alberta Innovates — Health Solutions, the Hair Massacure and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

Tammy MacDonald, who founded the Hair Massacure fundraiser and helped fund this research, spoke of a young family member’s diagnosis with leukemia in 2000 — a diagnosis that would have been a death sentence at one time.

"Today, due to ongoing research and clinical trials, the odds of beating many cancers have significantly increased. Still, we have not found a cure. We felt that continuing the journey of research will inevitably lead us there.

"Dr. Baksh is our chosen researcher. We are extremely thankful for his expertise, passion and accountability. Dr. Baksh’s discovery and interest in colitis and inflammatory diseases, as it relates to pre-cancers, adds a more thorough approach to seeking proactive treatments that could prevent cancer."

source : http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131023125606.htm