Posts Tagged ‘british’

Invisible blood in urine may indicate bladder cancer

Scientists at the University of Exeter Medical School found that one in 60 people over the age of 60 who had invisible blood in their urine (identified by their GP testing their urine) transpired to have bladder cancer. The figure was around half those who had visible blood in their urine — the best known indicator of bladder cancer. However, it was still higher than figures for other potential symptoms of bladder cancer that warrant further investigation.

Lead author Sarah Price, a PhD student at the University of Exeter Medical School, led the first robust study to investigate whether invisible blood in urine can indicate bladder cancer. Speaking as the study is published in the British Journal of General Practice on September 1 2014, she said: “It is well known that if you see blood in your urine you should contact your GP, who is likely to refer you for tests. But there is no clear guidance for GPs on what to do if they detect blood that is not visible during routine tests. We are hopeful that our findings will now lead to robust guidance that it warrants further investigation. Early diagnosis is crucial to have the best chance of successfully treating bladder cancer. The three-quarters of patients who are diagnosed early have much better outcomes than those whose disease is diagnosed late. Anything we can do to boost early detection is crucial to help save lives.”

The study examined more than 26,000 people whose anonymized data contributed to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink; this is a large research database used by the Exeter team in several cancer studies. The team found that the risk of bladder cancer was 1.6 per cent in people over 60 who had invisible blood in their urine.

Around 10,000 people in the UK are diagnosed with bladder cancer each year. The condition is more common in men than women and in older people, with the average age of diagnosis at 68. Smoking is among the main causes.

source : http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140901090731.htm

Some women still don’t underststand ‘overdiagnosis’ risk in breast screening

In a survey of around 2,200 women, Cancer Research UK scientists at University College London (UCL) found that 64 per cent felt they fully understood the information given about overdiagnosis — the chance that screening will pick up cancers that would never have gone on to cause any harm — by the National breast screening programme.

Information about overdiagnosis has only been included in the NHS breast screening invitation leaflets since late 2013, meaning that overdiagnosis is likely to be a new concept for many people.

But despite uncertainty over the information they were given, intentions to attend breast screening remained high, with only seven per cent of women saying they would be less likely to attend screening after receiving the overdiagnosis information. On the other hand, four per cent of women said they would be more likely to attend screening after receiving the information.

Study author, Dr Jo Waller, a researcher at the Health Behaviour Research Centre at UCL, said: “While there is clearly room for improvement, the information leaflet does appear to help some women make a decision about whether or not to have breast screening.

“But the study found that many women still struggle to understand the balance of benefits and harms linked to breast screening, so we need to find better ways to communicate the risks as well as the benefits.”

Overdiagnosis happens because some breast cancers grow so slowly that it would take more than a lifetime for them to threaten a woman’s health. For every life that is saved through screening, researchers estimate that around three women will be overdiagnosed with breast cancer, although there is presently no way of telling the difference between life-threatening cancers and cancers that are overdiagnosed, either at diagnosis or after treatment.

Sara Hiom, Cancer Research UK’s director of early diagnosis, said: “We think it’s vitally important for women to have clear information about breast screening, the balance of benefits and harms and the fact that they could be diagnosed with and treated for a cancer that might not have caused them harm.

“We are committed to providing quality information that can help women understand the harms and benefits of breast screening, and research like this can help us refine the information we offer to be sure that it is as helpful and understandable as possible.

“The concept of overdiagnosis is still very new for a lot of women because it has only been included in the NHS leaflets for a year. We hope that over time, people’s understanding of this concept will increase as more and more women receive information explaining this risk of screening.

“Any woman invited for breast screening and worried about the risks of overdiagnosis can speak to our specialist cancer nurses on freephone 0808 800 4040.”

source : http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140829083906.htm

Five daily portions of fruit and vegetables may be enough to lower risk of early death

These results conflict with a recent study published in BMJ‘s Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health suggesting that seven or more daily portions of fruits and vegetables were linked to lowest risk of death.

There is growing evidence that increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is related to a lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, the results are not entirely consistent.

So a team of researchers based in China and the United States decided to examine the association between fruit and vegetable intake and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer deaths.

They analysed the results of sixteen studies involving a total of 833,234 participants and 56,423 deaths. Differences in study design and quality were taken into account to minimise bias. Higher consumption of fruit and vegetables was significantly associated with a lower risk of death from all causes, particularly from cardiovascular diseases.

Average risk of death from all causes was reduced by 5% for each additional daily serving of fruit and vegetables, while risk of cardiovascular death was reduced by 4 percent for each additional daily serving of fruit and vegetables.

But the researchers identified a threshold around five servings per day, after which the risk of death did not reduce further.

In contrast, higher consumption of fruit and vegetables was not appreciably associated with risk of death from cancer. The researchers suggest that, as well as advice to eat adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, the adverse effects of obesity, physical inactivity, smoking and high alcohol intake on cancer risk should be further emphasised.

The researchers say their study “provides further evidence that a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of mortality from all causes, particularly from cardiovascular diseases. The results support current recommendations to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables to promote health and longevity.”

source : http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140729224918.htm