Posts Tagged ‘chicago’

Is the HPV vaccine necessary?

“I often have parents ask me if their child should get the HPV vaccine and what are my thoughts about giving it. Some parents are concerned it will promote sexual activity, others think it is unnecessary and others think their child is too young. If the child falls between the recommended ages given by the American Academy of Pediatrics I strongly recommend the vaccination. It really could be the difference between life and death,” said Hannah Chow-Johnson, MD, pediatrician at Loyola University Health System and assistant professor in the Department of Pediatrics at Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine.

According to Chow there are only two shots that can prevent cancer. One is hepatitis B and the other is the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease and is known to cause several different types of cancer, including cervical cancer, which is the second leading cancer-cause of death in women.

“Parents need to take into consideration the anti-cancer benefits when considering if they want their child to receive the HPV vaccine,” said Chow.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention there are more than 20 million people in the U.S. infected with HPV and at least half of these are between the ages of 15-25.

HPV is transmitted through intercourse and genital contact. Both men and women can harbor the virus, which can remain in a person for years after the initial infection.

“One of the scary aspects of HPV is that a person can be infected and not even know it. He or she may have no symptoms at all and still be spreading the virus,” Chow said. “This is why I strong believe in vaccinating males and females early, well before any exposure takes place.”

Prevention is critical when it comes to HPV. According to Chow the vaccine’s protection rate is 93 percent when given before any exposure. After exposure the vaccine doesn’t treat pre-exiting viruses but will help protect against future exposure.

“HPV is a very dangerous virus that can lead to death. Since there is no cure, prevention is all the more important. This vaccine could save the life of your child,” Chow said.

source : http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140828135242.htm

Leukemia drug shows promise for skin, breast and other cancers

Dasatinib fights leukemia by checking the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells. But when used against other cancer cells, researchers found, the drug employs a different strategy: It causes the cells to clump together, thus preventing them from migrating. Without the ability to migrate, cancer cells cannot metastasize (spread to other parts of the body).

Mitchell Denning, PhD, and colleagues discovered the molecular mechanism behind this cell-cell adhesion. The researchers reported their findings in a study published online ahead of print in the journal Molecular Carcinogenesis.

Dasatinib (trade name, Sprycel) is approved for certain types of leukemia. It targets a protein called BCR-ABL that fuels the growth of cancer cells.

BCR-ABL is similar to a protein called Fyn that’s found in other malignancies, including breast, brain, pancreatic, skin and head-and-neck cancers. Fyn is associated with cell-cell adhesion and cell migration.

Denning and colleagues found that applying dasatinib to cancer cells in the laboratory caused the cells to clump together, and also prevented the cells from migrating. They found similar results with breast cancer cells. While dasatinib did not eliminate Fyn, it inhibited the protein’s activity.

The researchers also found that dasatinib reduced the number and size of tumors in mice that had skin cancer.

Denning noted that clinical trials are underway to test dasatinib on patients with melanoma, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, endometrial cancer, gastrointestinal stromal cancer, ovarian cancer, multiple myeloma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

“We think dasatinib can be applied to many different types of cancer,” Denning said.

source : http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140819094007.htm

Beating childhood cancer does not necessarily make survivors healthier adults, study shows

Childhood cancer survivors face different health-care challenges and are more susceptible to dying earlier than the general population. They have a higher risk of second cancers, heart disease, body weight disorders and psychosocial problems. Therefore the American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity encourages the efforts of cancer survivors to lead healthier lifestyles.

Because so little is known about how well cancer survivors adhere to these guidelines, Chloe Berdan and colleagues examined selected data from the Chicago Healthy Living Study participants. The University of Illinois investigative team led by Drs. Stolley and Sharp conducted structured health-focused interviews with 431 childhood cancer survivors and 361 people who never had the disease. The survivors, aged between 18 and 59 years old, were all diagnosed with a malignant cancer before their 21st birthdays.

No marked difference was found between how survivors and members of the control group adhered to the overall American Cancer Society guidelines. Survivors had on average a body mass index of about 1.2 kg/m² lower than that of members of the control group and smoked less. They consumed less fiber. In fact, only about one in every ten survivors (10.2 percent) met fiber recommendations, while only 17.7 percent ate five fruits or vegetables per day. Survivors were better at meeting the goal of at least five hours of moderate activity per week (60.5 percent) than to sticking to any of the other guidelines, and on average scored under 50 percent for the quality of their diets. The 0.7 percent of survivors who actually adhered fully to the guidelines tended to be women, non-smokers and people with a good view of their own health.

“There is still much room for improvement in educating and encouraging survivors to follow healthier diets and lifestyles,” says Berdan. “Adopting such behavior during early adulthood may have a lasting impact on their quality of life and overall survival.”

source : http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140812163808.htm