Posts Tagged ‘jersey’

Research reveals mechanism behind cell protein remodeling

According to the National Cancer Institute, more than a third of all human cancers are driven by mutations in the Ras family of genes. When Ras is activated, it promotes tumor growth but also activates autophagy which helps to sustain that growth. These cancers remodel proteins using the cellular self-cannibalization process known as autophagy to capture and degrade intracellular proteins and protein-containing organelles. Since Ras-driven cancers often rely on autophagy for growth and survival, this raised the question: Is proteome remodeling by autophagy important, and if so, by what mechanism?

This question was answered in research published in the current online edition of Molecular Cell, by senior author Eileen White, PhD, associate director for basic science at the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, and colleagues. They compared the global proteome (all of the expressed proteins) of Ras-driven cancer cells where autophagy was present to those where autophagy was deficient.

In this latest study researchers found that autophagy affects a majority of the proteins in Ras-driven cancers, yet the process is highly selective as to which proteins are targeted. For instance, investigators found that autophagy eliminates proteins involved in non-essential pathways or those deemed toxic under stressful conditions. Meanwhile, autophagy-resistant proteins involved in pathways needed for stress survival and autophagy maintenance were spared. The authors say these sets of proteins can serve as biomarkers for monitoring autophagy in the clinical setting. The study also revealed that defects in the autophagy process caused accumulation of certain proteins that prompted activation of an immune response in cancer cells and led to cell death.

“This remodeling process of the cell proteome by autophagy is an important immune-suppressive survival mechanism for Ras-driven cancers, and inhibiting autophagy can provide a means to target these aggressive cancers,” notes White, who is also a distinguished professor of molecular biology and biochemistry at Rutgers School of Arts and Sciences.

source : http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140828135240.htm

New way to more accurately detect cervical cancer in women

The American Cancer Society predicts that this year in the United States, more than 12,100 women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer, and roughly 4,220 women will die of the disease. Newer Pap tests and HPV screening more accurately identify pre-cancerous cellular changes that potentially develop into cervical cancer. When treated early, the chances of effectively treating and curing cervical cancer increase dramatically. Compared to a conventional Pap tests, the newer FDA approved process has increased detection of a significant pre-cancerous condition by more than 64%. By making the cervical cells easier to see, the new liquid-based Pap test produces better results for screening and detecting cervical cancer and its precursors.

HPV is present in more than 99% of women who develop cervical cancer. Newer DNA-based technology has also proven to be up to 40% more accurate than traditional Pap tests.

“After decades of women going to their doctor for annual Pap tests, the FDA, in a historic decision in April 2014, approved HPV testing as a replacement for the Pap test. Because of this new option for patients, more tests are now being developed to further expand the options for women and we are excited to be a part of this new, more accurate, more sensitive, and more comfortable method to prevent cancer in women. It’s a groundbreaking development that provides women in our community with access to the best cervical health screening available today,” says Dr. Mark Martens.

In this study, patients will have cancer causing HPV strains tested from the liquid-based Pap specimen to determine if either one or both tests will improve cancer detection. In order to be eligible to participate women must be at least 21 years of age or older and have not had a Pap test in the past four months or a hysterectomy. Other requirements must also be met in order to qualify for this clinical research study. Women who participate will receive study related medical care at no charge, and will be compensated for study related procedures.

source : http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140807154017.htm