Posts Tagged ‘public-health’

No association found between wearing bra, breast cancer

“There have been some concerns that one of the reasons why breast cancer may be more common in developed countries compared with developing countries is differences in bra-wearing patterns,” said Lu Chen, MPH, a researcher in the Public Health Sciences Division at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and a doctoral student in the Department of Epidemiology at the University of Washington School of Public Health. “Given how common bra wearing is, we thought this was an important question to address.

“Our study found no evidence that wearing a bra increases a woman’s risk for breast cancer. The risk was similar no matter how many hours per day women wore a bra, whether they wore a bra with an underwire, or at what age they first began wearing a bra,” said Chen.

“There has been some suggestion in the lay media that bra wearing may be a risk factor for breast cancer. Some have hypothesized that drainage of waste products in and around the breast may be hampered by bra wearing. Given very limited biological evidence supporting such a link between bra wearing and breast cancer risk, our results were not surprising,” Chen added.

According to the study authors, this study characterizes various bra-wearing habits in relation to breast cancer risk using a rigorous epidemiological study design. “The findings provide reassurance to women that wearing a bra does not appear to increase the risk for the most common histological types of postmenopausal breast cancer,” the authors noted.

Study participants were 454 women with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and 590 women with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), the two most common subtypes of breast cancer, from the Seattle-Puget Sound metropolitan area; 469 women who did not have breast cancer served as controls. All women were postmenopausal, ages 55 to 74.

The researchers conducted in-person interviews and obtained information on demographics, family history, and reproductive history. They also asked a series of structured questions to assess lifetime patterns of bra wearing. Questions included age at which the study participant started wearing a bra, whether she wore a bra with an underwire, her bra cup size and band size, the number of hours per day and number of days per week she wore a bra, and if her bra-wearing patterns ever changed at different times in her life.

No aspect of wearing a bra was associated with an increased risk for either IDC or ILC.

source : http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140905090615.htm

Awareness of Jolie’s preventive mastectomy not linked to greater knowledge of breast cancer risk

"Ms. Jolie’s reach is exceptional. Our study confirms that the public became aware of her health narrative," commented Dina Borzekowski, lead author of the study and professor at the University of Maryland School of Public Health and Adjunct Professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. "What was lost was the rarity of Jolie’s situation and how BRCA is associated with breast cancer."

Among survey respondents who were aware of Jolie’s story, nearly half could recall her estimated risk of breast cancer before the surgery, but fewer than 10 percent of those had the necessary information to interpret the risk of an average woman without a BRCA gene mutation relative to Jolie’s risk. Additionally, exposure to Jolie’s story was associated with greater confusion, rather than clarity, about the relationship between a family history of cancer and increased cancer risk. Among those aware of Jolie’s story, about half incorrectly thought that a lack of family history of cancer was associated with a lower than average personal risk of cancer, and among respondents who had at least one close relative affected by cancer, those who were aware of Jolie’s story were less likely than those who were unaware of her story to estimate their own cancer risk as higher than average (39 vs. 59 percent).

"These findings suggest that celebrities can certainly bring attention and increased awareness to matters of personal health, but there’s also a need for more purposeful public education efforts around complex medical issues such as breast cancer risk," said Katherine Smith, PhD, study author and professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. "We must continue to improve our understanding of the best ways to get clear, useful information to vulnerable and high-risk populations." The majority of survey respondents who were aware of Jolie’s story learned of it through national or local television coverage (61.2 percent) or from an entertainment news piece (21.5 percent), whereas only 3.4 percent read her commentary in the New York Times.

"As we learn more about the genetic contribution to disease risk, it’s crucial that health journalists work to ensure an accurate understanding," added Smith. "This includes seeking out scientific and clinical experts who can communicate risk in a way that adequately equips the public to make informed personal health decisions."

source : http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131219082539.htm

Sedentary behavior linked to recurrence of precancerous colorectal tumors

The majority of colorectal cancers arise from precursors called colorectal adenomatous polyps, or colorectal adenomas, which can be removed during a colonoscopy. Although there is extensive evidence supporting an association between higher overall levels of physical activity and reduced risk of colorectal cancer, few studies have focused on the impact of sedentary behavior on colorectal cancer risk.

"Sedentary behavior is emerging as a risk factor for poor health," said Christine L. Sardo Molmenti, PhD, MPH, postdoctoral research fellow in the Department of Epidemiology at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health in New York. "Even among those who fulfill daily recommendations for physical activity, lengthy periods of sedentary behavior have been associated with early morbidity and mortality, leading to the ‘active couch potato’ paradigm.

"To our knowledge, this study is the first to specifically investigate the association between sedentary behavior and recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Given the substantial increase in risk of colorectal adenoma recurrence (45%) we observed for men with the highest sedentary time, we believe it would be beneficial to see ‘reduce prolonged sitting time’ added to the list of public health recommendations currently in place for health promotion and disease prevention."

Sardo Molmenti and colleagues performed a pooled analysis of participants of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trials conducted at the University of Arizona Cancer Center in Tucson and the Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health: The Wheat Bran Fiber Study and the Ursodeoxycholic Acid Trial.

All participants in the trials had one or more colorectal adenomas removed during a colonoscopy conducted in the six months prior to their trial enrollment. Among the participants were 1,730 who had completed a self-administered questionnaire that included questions about leisure, recreational, household, and other categories of activity at enrollment, and had undergone a follow-up colonoscopy.

When the researchers analyzed all the data together, they found no association between activity type and colorectal adenoma recurrence. However, when they examined the data for men and women separately, they found that men who reported spending more than 11.38 hours a day engaged in sedentary behaviors, such as writing, typing or working on a computer, and reading, were 45 percent more likely to experience colorectal adenoma recurrence compared with men who spent fewer than 6.90 sedentary hours a day. No association between sedentary time and colorectal adenoma recurrence was observed for women.

Further analysis showed that men who reported high levels of sedentary behaviors and low levels of participation in recreational activities such as walking, jogging, and playing golf, were 41 percent more likely to experience colorectal adenoma recurrence compared with men who reported low levels of both sedentary behaviors and recreational activity. According to Sardo Molmenti, this confirms that sedentary behavior appears to independently contribute to increased cancer risk beyond the accompanying reduction in physical activity.

The researchers plan to conduct further studies to determine more clearly the role of sedentary behavior in cancer risk. According to Sardo Molmenti, new tools and methods are needed to better classify and quantify sedentary behaviors.

source : http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131029143002.htm