Abdominal aortic aneurysm
What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
VASCULAR SURGERY – EURODOCTOR.RU – 2007
The aorta – is the largest artery in the body. Through her, the blood goes from heart to all organs and tissues. Coming from the heart, the aorta passes through the chest, where it is known as the thoracic. In the abdominal aorta is called the abdomen. Through the aorta receives blood to the lower body. In the lower abdomen the aorta divides into two branches – the iliac arteries, which are involved in blood supply of the lower extremities.
A special extension of the wall saccular abdominal aorta, which is caused by thinning of the wall, called an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. The fact is that quite a powerful blood pressure on a weakened aortic wall, it appears certain ballonoobraznoe expansion of its site. The normal diameter of the aorta is 2 cm, however, the aneurysm of the aorta's diameter can be stretched to dangerous proportions. Risk of aortic aneurysms is all that it could happen, or even break the bundle, leading to massive internal bleeding and death.
In addition, the aneurysm may promote the formation of blood clots. These clots rushing flow of blood to the organs and can cause blockage of blood vessels, resulting in significant pain and disruption to the blood flow to the extremities and necrosis.
However, in the early diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm, it can be treated and even cured with modern effective and safe treatments.
What are the symptoms of abdominal aortic aneurysm?
With the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms may be observed the following symptoms:
- Throbbing sensation in the stomach, like a heartbeat
- Sudden severe pain in the abdomen or lower back. This may be a sign of aortic dissection
- In rare cases there may be a pain in the feet, due to blockage of blanching vessels of the lower limb thrombi
When the bundle of aneurysm patients may feel sudden weakness, dizziness, or pain, and lose consciousness. This is a life-threatening condition in which case the patient needs urgent medical care.
Causes of abdominal aortic aneurysm
Doctors and researchers can not fully answer this question. The leading cause of aortic aneurysm is an inflammation that contributes to the destruction of the aortic wall. Some researchers attribute this to an inflammation of the aortic wall with the process of atherosclerosis or risk factors that lead to atherosclerosis, such as high blood pressure. When atherosclerosis in the arteries and the aorta are deposited so-called atherosclerotic plaques. Over time, this process leads to a narrowing of the lumen of the arteries, loss of elasticity and weaknesses. There are other risk factors for aortic aneurysm, atherosclerosis, except for:
- Men older than 60 years
- The presence of a direct relative (mother, brother) who are suffering from aortic aneurysm
- High blood pressure
The risk of aortic aneurysm increases with age. Men suffer from aortic aneurysm than women.
Necessary examination for suspected abdominal aortic aneurysm
The most common aortic aneurysm detected during a study of patient procedures, such as ultrasound. If your doctor suspects you have the presence of an aortic aneurysm, it may recommend:
- Ultrasound examination of abdomen
- Computed tomography
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging
How is abdominal aortic aneurysm?
Your doctor may recommend that the so-call watchful waiting, which means that every 6 months, you will take a survey to identify any changes in the size of the aneurysm. To do this regularly, or ultrasound, or computed tomography. This method is used to diagnose an aneurysm diameter of 5 – 5.5 cm If in addition, have you suffer from high blood pressure, your doctor may prescribe drugs that reduce it, thereby reducing blood pressure on the weakened wall of the aorta. If you smoke, you should quit smoking. By itself, the aneurysm will not go anywhere. It is therefore very important to constantly consult with your doctor, because over time, the aneurysm may reach dangerous dimensions, which is fraught with complications.
If the aneurysm causes certain symptoms (pain, throbbing, etc.) or a diameter of more than 5 – 5.5 cm, either over time there is an increase of its diameter, the surgeon may offer you an open surgical procedure. The meaning of this operation is that the surgeon removes the weakened aortic wall changed the site, and replaces it with a special "pipe" – aortic prosthesis. The prosthesis is made of special durable synthetic material (manually) in diameter and the size of a healthy aorta. Sewn aortic prosthesis allows blood to flow freely. After surgery, the patient stays in hospital, 4 – 7 days. A full course of rehabilitation may take about 2 – 3 months. The success of the treatment of aneurysms of the aorta in this manner up to 90%.
A more modern method of treatment of aneurysms of the aorta (the aorta and not only) in the form of endovascular surgery, as stenting. The term "endovascular" means that the operation is carried out within the vessel using a special catheter that is inserted into the lumen of the vessel. This type of surgery is minimally invasive. This means that the operation requires the surgeon to make only a small incision in the groin, through which the catheter. During the operation, carried out survey of X-ray images in real time, allowing the surgeon to control the process of the catheter in the vessel. Next, the surgeon enters the lumen of the aorta in a special device – stent. This is a cylindrical wire frame, which strengthens the wall of the aorta. The rehabilitation period after such kind of operation only 2 – 3 days. However, after the operation requires a fairly frequent radiological monitoring of the condition and operation of the stent installed. In addition, it may happen that this method does not suit you, for example, if you have renal failure. It should be noted that in some cases more acceptable open surgery.
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