Blood pressure – pressure in large arteries
VASCULAR SURGERY – EURODOCTOR.RU – 2007
Blood pressure – a force with which the blood circulates in the body against the walls of blood vessels, it is one of the basic parameters of life. The blood pressure decreases as it passes through the arteries, arterioles, capillaries and veins. The term "blood pressure" mostly refers to blood pressure, namely, the pressure in large arteries.
Measuring blood pressure is carried out using the apparatus of sphygmomanometer, invented by an Italian doctor Riva Rochchi. This so-called non-invasive method for determining blood pressure. Blood pressure, defined in such a device is expressed in millimeters of mercury. Although the modern sphygmomanometer for safety reasons do not use mercury, unit of measurement of blood pressure according to tradition are millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)
Blood pressure is measured in two terms. This is the systolic (the so-called top) and diastolic blood pressure. Sometimes referred to as heart and kidney, respectively. The fact is that the systolic blood pressure is a measure of the efficiency of the heart, ie the force with which the heart "pumps" blood. It should be noted that the increase in the incidence of heart attacks do not always cause the increase in systolic pressure. It depends on the causes of heart palpitations.
Diastolic blood pressure is an indicator of blood vessel tone. That is, the pressure of blood on the wall of blood vessels during diastole, ie when the heart is "relaxed." Kidney, it is called, for the reason that governed normal renal function. For example, renal failure, ie, a condition where there is fluid retention, diastolic blood pressure increases as the volume of blood in the vascular bed is increased, and consequently, increased blood pressure in the vessel wall.
The normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg However, for some people it may be lower, reaching 90/60 mm Hg
In children, these figures may be lower in older and older – is higher due to sclerosis (seal) blood vessels.
The regulation of blood pressure
Blood pressure is regulated by hormones and some other factors:
- Renin-angiotensin system. Renin is produced by the kidneys. Its selection depends on the kidneys of normal blood supply. In the blood of the renin angiotensin becomes. This hormone increases vascular tone. In renal ischemia, such as renovascular disease, renin release is increased, leading to an increase in blood pressure.
- Reflexes from baroreceptors. Baroreceptors (receptors sensitive to the pressure of the blood) in various organs, depending on the pressure effect on the frequency and force of heart contractions, which leads to a change in pressure.
- Aldosterone. This hormone is the adrenal glands. He is responsible for the delay in the body fluids and, therefore, also regulates blood pressure.
- Thyroid hormones. These hormones regulate the metabolism of the common-organism, and therefore blood pressure.
Increased blood pressure
Increased blood pressure – hypertension – is of two types: primary and symptomatic. "Symptomatic hypertension" means that the pressure is high due to several causes: heart disease (acquired defects, arrhythmias), renal, endocrine glands, etc. On the primary (essential) hypertension, say, when the cause of increase in blood pressure can not be found. This so-called essential hypertension.
What are the conditions and diseases lead to high blood pressure?
- Heart disease: the aortic heart valve, certain congenital heart defects, arrhythmias of the heart.
- Kidney diseases: kidney disease, almost all are accompanied by an increase in blood pressure – pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis, renovascular disease, and others. The mechanism of pressure increase is associated with an increase in renin release due to ischemia of the kidney, as well as a violation of the regulation of renal water balance in the body (because the kidneys shows a surplus of liquid).
- Diseases of the adrenal glands: increased function of the adrenal glands (Cushing's syndrome), pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal glands, in which the observed increased release of adrenaline).
- Thyroid disease: hyperfunction of the thyroid gland – thyrotoxic goiter. Thus except for high blood pressure, due to the increased metabolism observed increase in heart rate, sweating, irritability and other symptoms.
Under what conditions is reduced blood pressure?
- Heart disease: stenosis (narrowing) of the aortic valve, and some congenital heart defects.
- Diseases of the adrenal glands: adrenal insufficiency.
- Thyroid disease: reduced function of the thyroid gland – hypothyroidism (myxedema).
- Blood pressure is reduced and in many infectious diseases. This is due to the fact that the massive cell death of microbes in the blood get their waste products. This leads to a decrease in blood pressure due to the fact that decreases the tone of blood vessels.
- Allergic diseases: for example, anaphylactic shock. In the blood of the so-called fall of biologically active substances (histamine, bradykinin, and others), which also reduce vascular tone.
CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY in MC Imedical – ISRAEL
CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY in GERMAN Cardiology – BERLIN
CLINIC CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY NIDERBERG – GERMANY
CENTER FOR CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE SURGERY JSC – MOSCOW
Examination and treatment in GERMANY – Institute "DIAGNOSTIX"
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