Occlusive disease of the aorta and iliac arteries
Of obstruction of the aorta and iliac arteries
VASCULAR SURGERY – EURODOCTOR.RU – 2007
The abdominal aorta at the bottom is divided into two branches – the iliac arteries. These arteries provide blood flow to the lower part of the human body, namely, to the lower limbs and genitals. Iliac artery passes through the pelvis to the lower extremities, where they are separated into smaller arteries until the toes. Narrowing and occlusion of the lumen of the abdominal aorta and iliac artery occlusive disease is developing aorta and iliac arteries.
Normally, the lumen of the aorta and arteries, smooth and uniform. However, with age, as well as in certain diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, on the walls of the arteries appear fat – atherosclerotic plaques. They are composed of cholesterol, calcium and fibrous tissue. The more there is plaque in the arteries and aorta, the more they narrow the lumen and the stronger impair blood flow. This process is called atherosclerosis. In the end, there is a narrowing of the arteries to such an extent that the blood on them can not properly implemented.
Violation of blood flow in the lower extremities leads to ischemia and the appearance of pain when walking. In severe cases, the absence of blood flow may develop gangrene, which leads to loss of limbs.
The symptoms of occlusive disease of the aorta and iliac arteries
At the beginning of the disease may experience pain, cramping and fatigue in the legs when walking. These symptoms are called "intermittent claudication", because after a short rest they pass. Over time, the disease worsens, the pain is there with less stress. Eventually the disease progresses to the point where marked pain and cold toes even at rest. Hairs become sparse. The nails thicken. In addition, men with this disease there is impotence.
Left untreated, the disease progressively worsens. Below are the symptoms of this disease:
- Severe pain, coldness and numbness of extremities
- Sores on the toes, heels and lower parts of legs
- Dryness, peeling and cracked skin on feet. Cracks in the skin can become infected
- Muscle weakness of the legs
- Gangrene (tissue necrosis), which may require amputation
The presence of these symptoms indicates a narrowing of several arteries, so to prevent the development of gangrene will require treatment for several arteries.
Risk factors for disease narrowing of the aorta and iliac vessels
Most cases of occlusive disease of the aorta and iliac vessels associated with atherosclerosis. Risk factors for this disease are:
- High cholesterol
- High blood pressure
- Heredity (the presence of close relatives with a similar disease)
In rare cases, can occur such diseases as Takayasu arteritis, which also causes a narrowing of the arteries of the lower extremities. Usually, Takayasu arteritis affects young Asian women aged 10-30 years.
Methods of diagnosis of patency of the aorta and iliac vessels
At the beginning of the doctor conducting a general survey of health, inquiring about how the disease began, how it progressed, complaints, presence of harmful habits. Be sure the measurement of blood pressure and biochemical blood tests. The doctor also conducts determination of the pulse at the feet of certain places: it is behind the ankle and foot, in the popliteal fossa and thigh. The doctor not only determines the frequency of the pulse, but also its quality. In addition, the doctor performs a special test to determine the nature of blood flow in the lower extremities.
- Ankle-arm index. This rate is determined by measuring blood pressure at the ankle and shoulder, and a comparison of these indicators. Normally, these two measures are equivalent. With a decrease in blood pressure in the ankle twice in comparison with the pressure on his shoulder, it's safe to talk about abuse of blood flow in the arteries of the lower extremities. However, this method does not allow to determine the level of obstruction of the arteries.
- Doppler ultrasound – a noninvasive method for diagnosis of vascular disease (arterial or venous) using ultrasound. The method is based on the physical phenomenon of the Doppler and is used to detect the level of narrowing or blockage of blood vessels
- Angioscanning duplex – as a method of diagnosing vascular disease (arterial or venous) by ultrasound, but with more features
- Rheovasography – a method based on recording changes in electrical conductivity of tissue associated with fluctuations in the degree of their blood supply. By reovazogramme establish the presence and degree of arterial insufficiency
There are three kinds of angiography:
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AID IN THE TREATMENT –
Treatment of diseases of occlusion of the aorta and iliac arteries
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